Aeronautical Terms beginning with G

Glide slope (GS)

Part of the ILS that projects a radio beam upward at an angle of approximately 3° from the approach end of an instrument runway. The glide slope provides vertical guidance to aircraft on the final approach course for the aircraft to follow when making an ILS approach along the localizer path.


Glide slope intercept altitude

The minimum altitude of an intermediate approach segment prescribed for a precision approach that ensures obstacle clearance.


Global landing system (GLS)

An instrument approach with lateral and vertical guidance with integrity limits (similar to barometric vertical navigation (BRO VNAV).


Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)

Satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few meters using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.


Global positioning system (GPS)

Navigation system that uses satellite rather than ground-based transmitters for location information.


Goniometer

As used in radio frequency (RF) antenna systems, a direction-sensing device consisting of two fixed loops of wire oriented 90 from each other, which separately sense received signal strength and send those signals to two rotors (also oriented 90) in the sealed direction-indicating instrument. The rotors are attached to the direction-indicating needle of the instrument and rotated by a small motor until minimum magnetic field is sensed near the rotors.


GPS Approach Overlay Program

An authorization for pilots to use GPS avionics under IFR for flying designated existing nonprecision instrument approach procedures, with the exception of LOC, LDA, and SDF procedures.


Graveyard spiral

The illusion of the cessation of a turn while still in a prolonged, coordinated, constant rate turn, which can lead a disoriented pilot to a loss of control of the aircraft.


Great circle route

The shortest distance across the surface of a sphere (the Earth) between two points on the surface.


Ground proximity warning system (GPWS)

A system designed to determine an aircrafts clearance above the Earth and provides limited predictability about aircraft position relative to rising terrain.


Groundspeed

Speed over the ground, either closing speed to the station or waypoint, or speed over the ground in whatever direction the aircraft is going at the moment, depending upon the navigation system used.


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