Aeronautical Terms beginning with C

Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)

A situation where a mechanically normally functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground, water, or an obstacle. There are two basic causes of CFIT accidents; both involve flight crew situational awareness. One definition of situational awareness is an accurate perception by pilots of the factors and conditions currently affecting the safe operation of the aircraft and the crew. The causes of CFIT are the flight crews lack of vertical position awareness or their lack of horizontal position awareness in relation to terrain and obstacles.


Center Radar ARTS Presentation/Processing (CENRAP)

CENRAP was developed to provide an alternative to a non-radar environment at terminal facilities should an ASR fail or malfunction. CENRAP sends aircraft radar beacon target information to the ASR terminal facility equipped with ARTS.


Changeover Point (COP)

A COP indicates the point where a frequency change is necessary between navigation aids when other than the midpoint on an airway, to receive course guidance from the facility ahead of the aircraft instead of the one behind. These COPs divide an airway or route segment and ensure continuous reception of navigational signals at the prescribed minimum en route IFR altitude.


Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP)

A CVFP may be established at some towered airports for environmental or noise considerations, as well as when necessary for the safety and efficiency of air traffic operations. Designed primarily for turbojet aircraft, CVFPs depict prominent landmarks, courses, and recommended altitudes to specific runways.


Cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI)

The display and user interface for information about air traffic within approximately 80 miles. It will typically combine and show traffic data from TCAS, TIS-B, and ADS-B. Depending on features, the display may also show terrain, weather, and navigation information.


Collision Hazard

A condition, event, or circumstance that could induce an occurrence of a collision or surface accident or incident.


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Contact Approach

An approach where an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic control authorization, operating clear of clouds with at least one mile flight visibility, and a reasonable expectation of continuing to the destination airport in those conditions, may deviate from the instrument approach procedure and proceed to the destination airport by visual reference to the surface. This approach will only be authorized when requested by the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the destination airport is at least one statute mile.


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