Aeronautical Terms beginning with I

IFR (Instrument Flight Rules)

Rules that govern the procedure for conducting flight in weather conditions below VFR weather minimums. The term “IFR” also is used to define weather conditions and the type of flight plan under which an aircraft is operating.


Igniter Plugs

The electrical device used to provide the spark for starting combustion in a turbine engine. Some igniters resemble spark plugs, while others, called glow plugs, have a coil of resistance wire that glows red hot when electrical current flows through the coil.


Impact Ice

Ice that forms on the wings and control surfaces or on the carburetor heat valve, the walls of the air scoop, or the carburetor units during flight. Impact ice collecting on the metering elements of the carburetor may upset fuel metering or stop carburetor fuel flow.


Inclinometer

An instrument consisting of a curved glass tube, housing a glass ball, and damped with a fluid similar to kerosene. It may be used to indicate inclination, as a level, or, as used in the turn indicators, to show the relationship between gravity and centrifugal force in a turn.


Indicated Airspeed (IAS)

The direct instrument reading obtained from the airspeed indicator, uncorrected for variations in atmospheric density, installation error, or instrument error. Manufacturers use this airspeed as the basis for determining airplane performance. Takeoff, landing, and stall speeds listed in the AFM or POH are indicated airspeeds and do not normally vary with altitude or temperature.


Indicated Altitude

The altitude read directly from the altimeter (uncorrected) when it is set to the current altimeter setting.


Induced Drag

That part of total drag which is created by the production of lift. Induced drag increases with a decrease in airspeed.


Induction Manifold

The part of the engine that distributes intake air to the cylinders.


Inertia

The opposition which a body offers to a change of motion.


Initial Climb

This stage of the climb begins when the airplane leaves the ground, and a pitch attitude has been established to climb away from the takeoff area.


Integral Fuel Tank

A portion of the aircraft structure, usually a wing, which is sealed off and used as a fuel tank. When a wing is used as an integral fuel tank, it is called a “wet wing.”


Intercooler

A device used to reduce the temperature of the compressed air before it enters the fuel metering device. The resulting cooler air has a higher density, which permits the engine to be operated with a higher power setting.


Internal Combustion Engines

An engine that produces power as a result of expanding hot gases from the combustion of fuel and air within the engine itself. A steam engine where coal is burned to heat up water inside the engine is an example of an external combustion engine.


Interstage Turbine Temperature (ITT)

The temperature of the gases between the high pressure and low pressure turbines.


Inverter

An electrical device that changes DC to AC power.


ISA (International Standard Atmosphere)

Standard atmospheric conditions consisting of a temperature of 59°F (15°C), and a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg. (1013.2 mb) at sea level. ISA values can be calculated for various altitudes using a standard lapse rate of approximately 2°C per 1,000 feet.


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