The Fundamentals of Instruction test assumes that you have memorized a bunch of lists. Here are some of them.
These are biological needs. They consist of the need for air, food, water, and maintenance of the human body.
Security needs are about keeping oneself from harm.
Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection, and the sense of belonging.
Humans get esteem in two ways: internally or externally. Internally, a person judges himself or herself worthy by personally defined standards. High self-esteem results in self-confidence, independence, achievement, competence, and knowledge.
Cognitive and Aesthetic
In later years, Maslow added cognitive (need to know and understand) and aesthetic (the emotional need of the artist) needs to the pyramid.
When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person’s need to be and do that which the person was “born to do.”
Human Nature and Motivation
Douglas McGregor set out two opposing assumptions about human nature and motivation in 1960.
“Theory X” assumes that management’s role is to coerce and control employees because people need control and direction.
“Theory Y” and holds that work is as natural as play and rest. The average person does not inherently dislike work.
Repression is the defense mechanism whereby a person places uncomfortable thoughts into inaccessible areas of the unconscious mind.
Denial is a refusal to accept external reality because it is too threatening.
Compensation is a process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other areas.
Through projection, an individual places his or her own unacceptable impulses onto someone else.
Rationalization is a subconscious technique for justifying actions that otherwise would be unacceptable.
In reaction formation a person fakes a belief opposite to the true belief because the true belief causes anxiety.
Fantasy occurs when a student engages in daydreams about how things should be rather than doing anything about how things are.
Displacement results in an unconscious shift of emotion, affect, or desire from the original object to a more acceptable, less threatening substitute.
Thorndike and the
Laws Principles of Learning
The basic needs of the learner must be satisfied before they are ready or capable of learning.
All learning involves the formation of connections and connections are strengthened or weakened according to the law of effect. Responses to a situation that are followed by satisfaction are strengthened; responses followed by discomfort are weakened, either strengthening or weakening the connection of learning.
Practice strengthens the learning connection; disuse weakens it. Exercise is most meaningful and effective when a skill is learned within the context of a real world application.
The state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression and underlies the reason an instructor must teach correctly the first time and the student must learn correctly the first time.
Real world applications (scenarios) that integrate procedures and tasks the learner is capable of learning make a vivid impression and he or she is least likely to forget the experience.
The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered.
The principle of freedom states that things freely learned are best learned.
The law of requirement states that “we must have something to obtain or do something.” It can be an ability, skill, instrument or anything that may help us to learn or gain something.
Domains of Learning
The four practical learning levels are rote, understanding, application, and correlation.
The affective domain addresses a learner’s emotions toward the learning experience. It includes feelings, values, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.
Five levels: awareness, response, value, organizing, and integration.
The psychomotor domain is skill based and includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas.
Characteristics of Learning
A Result of Experience
Learning Is Multifaceted
The learning process may include verbal elements, conceptual elements, perceptual elements, emotional elements, and problem-solving elements all taking place at once.
Stages of Skill Acquisition
The best way to prepare the student to perform a task is to provide a clear, step-by-step example.
As the storage of a skill via practice continues, the student learns to associate individual steps in performance with likely outcomes.
Automatic Response Stage
As procedures become automatic, less attention is required to carry them out, so it is possible to do other things simultaneously, or at least do other things more comfortably.
Types of Practice
Practices specific areas for improvement and receives specific feedback after practice.
Practicing the same drill until the movement becomes automatic. While blocked practice enhances current performance, it does not improve either concept learning or retrieval from long-term memory.
Random practice mixes up the skills to be acquired throughout the practice session.
Summary of Instructor Actions
To help students acquire skills, the instructor should:
• Explain that the key to acquiring and improving any skill is continued practice.
• Monitor student practice of skills and provide immediate feedback.
• Avoid conversation and other distractions when students are practicing individual skills.
• Explain that learning plateaus are common and that continued practice leads to continued improvement.
Learning and Practicing
Checking for Errors
Basic Elements of Communication
Source (sender, speaker, writer, encoder, transmitter, or instructor)
Symbols used in composing and transmitting the message (words or signs (model prop))
Receiver (listener, reader, decoder, or student)
Barriers to Effective Communication
Lack of Common Experience
Confusion Between the Symbol and the Symbolized Object
Overuse of Abstractions
Essence of Good Teaching
select and organize worthwhile course material,
lead students to encode and integrate this material in memorable form,
ensure competence in the procedures and methods of a discipline,
sustain intellectual curiosity,
promote how to learn independently.
Instructor’s Code of Conduct
• Make safety the number one priority,
• Develop and exercise good judgment in making decisions,
• Recognize and manage risk effectively,
• Be accountable for his or her actions,
• Act with responsibility and courtesy,
• Adhere to prudent operating practices and personal operating parameters, and
• Adhere to applicable laws and regulations.
The Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI) needs to remember he or she is teaching a pilot who should:
• Seek proficiency in control of the aircraft,
• Use flight deck technology in a safe and appropriate way,
• Be confident in a wide variety of flight situations, and
• Be respectful of the privilege of flight.
Preparation of a Lesson
Description of the Skill or Behavior
Presentation of a Lesson
• an overview of what is to be covered.
• past to present
• simple to complex
• known to unknown
• most frequently used to least used.
Training Delivery Methods
Formal Versus Informal Lectures
Guided Discussion Method
• Relate to the real world so students want to solve them.
• Require students to make decisions.
• Are open ended and not limited to one correct answer.
• Are connected to previously learned knowledge as well as new knowledge.
• Reflect lesson objective(s).
• Challenge students to think critically.
Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
Risk management, ADM, automation management, situational awareness, and Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) awareness are the skills encompassed by HOTS.
Types of Problem-Based Instruction
Scenario-Based Training Method (SBT)
Collaborative Problem-Solving Method
Case Study Method
• Student Performance
• Instructor Supervision
Drill and Practice Method
Guidelines for Use of Instructional Aids
• Clearly establish the lesson objective.
• Gather the necessary data by researching for support material.
• Organize the material into an outline or a lesson plan.
• Select the ideas to be supported with instructional aids.
• Traditional assessment
• Authentic assessment
• Diagnostic assessments
• Formative assessments
• Summative assessments
General Characteristics of Effective Assessment
Maneuver or Procedure “Grades”
• Describe—the student is able to describe the physical characteristics and cognitive elements of the scenario activities, but needs assistance to execute the maneuver or procedure successfully.
• Explain—the student is able to describe the scenario activity and understand the underlying concepts, principles, and procedures that comprise the activity, but needs assistance to execute the maneuver or procedure successfully.
• Practice—the student is able to plan and execute the scenario. Coaching, instruction, and/or assistance will correct deviations and errors identified by the instructor.
• Perform—the student is able to perform the activity without instructor assistance. The student will identify and correct errors and deviations in an expeditious manner. At no time will the successful completion of the activity be in doubt.
• Not observed—any event not accomplished or required.
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM) “Grades”
• Explain—the student can verbally identify, describe, and understand the risks inherent in the flight scenario, but needs to be prompted to identify risks and make decisions.
• Practice—the student is able to identify, understand, and apply SRM principles to the actual flight situation. Coaching, instruction, and/or assistance quickly corrects minor deviations and errors identified by the instructor. The student is an active decision maker.
• Manage-Decide—the student can correctly gather the most important data available both inside and outside the flight deck, identify possible courses of action, evaluate the risk inherent in each course of action, and make the appropriate decision. Instructor intervention is not required for the safe completion of the flight.
Choosing an Effective Assessment Method
• Determine level-of-learning objectives.
• List indicators of desired behaviors.
• Establish criterion objectives.
• Develop criterion-referenced test items.
Critiques and Oral Assessments
An effective critique considers good as well as bad performance, the individual parts, relationships of the individual parts, and the overall performance.
Small Group Critique
Individual Student Critique by Another Student
Characteristics of Effective Questions
• Apply to the subject of instruction.
• Be brief and concise, but also clear and definite.
• Be adapted to the ability, experience, and stage of training of the students.
• Center on only one idea (limited to who, what, when, where, how, or why, not a combination).
• Present a challenge to the students.
Answering Student Questions
• Be sure that you clearly understand the question before attempting to answer.
• Display interest in the student’s question and frame an answer that is as direct and accurate as possible.
• After responding, determine whether or not the student is satisfied with the answer.
Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson
After the objective is determined, the instructor must research the subject as it is defined by the objective. Once the research is complete, the instructor determines the method of instruction and identifies a useful lesson planning format. The decision of how to organize the lesson and the selection of suitable support material come next. The final steps include assembling training aids and writing the lesson plan outline. [Exam questions.]
Relation to course of training
Instructional steps-every lesson, when adequately developed, falls logically into the four steps of the teaching process: preparation, presentation, application, and review and evaluation.
Duties, Responsibilities, and Authority of the Aviation Instructor
1. Orient new learners to the SBT approach.
2. Help the learner become a confident planner and a critical evaluator of his or her own performance.
3. Help the learner understand the knowledge requirements present in real world applications.
4. Diagnose learning difficulties and help the individual overcome them.
5. Evaluate student progress and maintain appropriate records.
6. Provide continuous review of student learning.
Aviation Instructor Responsibilities
Helping Students Learn
Providing Adequate Instruction
Training to Standards of Performance
Emphasizing the Positive
Minimizing Student Frustrations
Keep students informed
Approach students as individuals
Give credit when due
Acceptance of the Student
Personal Appearance and Habits
Practical Flight Instructor Strategies
The flight instructor should demonstrate good aviation sense at all times:
• Before the flight—discuss safety and the importance of a proper preflight and use of the checklist.
• During flight—prioritize the tasks of aviating, navigating, and communicating. Instill importance of “see and avoid” in the student.
• During landing—conduct stabilized approaches, maintain desired airspeed on final, demonstrate good judgment for go-arounds, wake turbulence, traffic, and terrain avoidance. Use ADM to correct faulty approaches and landing errors. Make power-off, stall-warning blaring, on centerline touchdowns in the first third of runway.
• Always—remember safety is paramount.
Obstacles to Learning During Flight Instruction
• Feeling of unfair treatment
• Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations
• Worry or lack of interest
• Physical discomfort, illness, fatigue, and dehydration
• Apathy due to inadequate instruction
• Errors in timing
• Neglect of secondary tasks
• Loss of accuracy and control
• Lack of awareness of error accumulation
Warning Signs of Fatigue
Eyes going in and out of focus
Head bobs involuntarily
Spotty short-term memory
Wandering or poorly organized thoughts
Missed or erroneous performance of routine procedures
Degradation of control accuracy
Demonstration-Performance Training Delivery Method
Student Performance and Instructor Supervision Phases
The Telling-and-Doing Technique
• The flight instructor gives a carefully planned demonstration of the procedure or maneuver with accompanying verbal explanation.
• Student Tells—Instructor Does
• Student Tells—Student Does
Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes
Attitude: “Description” -> Antidote
Macho: “I can do it.” -> Taking chances is foolish.
Anti-authority” “Don’t tell me.” -> Follow the rules. They are usually right.
Impulsivity: “Do it quickly.” -> Not so fast. Think first.
Invulnerability: “It won’t happen to me.” -> It could happen to me.
Resignation: “What’s the use?” -> I’m not helpless. I can make a difference.
Defining Risk Management
Risk is defined as the probability and possible severity of accident or loss from exposure to various hazards, including injury to people and loss of resources.
• Hazard—a present condition, event, object, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesired event, such as an accident.
• Risk—the future impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated. It is the possibility of loss or injury. The level of risk is measured by the number of people or resources affected (exposure); the extent of possible loss (severity); and likelihood of loss (probability).
• Safety—freedom from those conditions that can cause death, injury, occupational illness, or damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment. Therefore, safety is a relative term that implies a level of risk that is both perceived and accepted.
Principles of Risk Management
Accept No Unnecessary Risk
Make Risk Decisions at the Appropriate Level
Accept Risk When Benefits Outweigh the Costs
Integrate Risk Management Into Planning at All Levels
Risk Management Process
Risk management is a simple process which identifies operational hazards and takes reasonable measures to reduce risk to personnel, equipment, and the mission.
Step 1: Identify the Hazard
Step 2: Assess the Risk
Step 3: Analyze Risk Control Measures
1. Probability of occurrence
2. Severity of the hazard
Step 4: Make Control Decisions
Step 5: Implement Risk Controls
Step 6: Supervise and Review
Implementing the Risk Management Process
• Apply the steps in sequence—each step is a building block for the next
• Allocate the time and resources to perform all steps in the process.
• Apply the process in a cycle—the “supervise and review” step should include a brand new look at the operation being analyzed to see whether new hazards can be identified.
• Involve people in the process—the people who are actually exposed to risks usually know best what works and what does not.
Level of Risk
The level of risk posed by a given hazard is measured in terms of:
• Severity (extent of possible loss)
• Probability (likelihood that a hazard will cause a loss)
1. Illness—Am I sick? Illness is an obvious pilot risk.
2. Medication—Am I taking any medicines that might affect my judgment or make me drowsy?
3. Stress—Stress causes concentration and performance problems. While the regulations list medical conditions that require grounding, stress is not among them.
4. Alcohol—Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours?
5. Fatigue—Am I tired and not adequately rested? Fatigue continues to be one of the most insidious hazards to flight safety, as it may not be apparent to a pilot until serious errors are made.
6. Emotions-A pilot who experiences an emotionally upsetting event should refrain from flying until the pilot has satisfactorily recovered.
The PAVE Checklist
Pilot in command (PIC), Aircraft, enVironment, and External pressures
Three-P Model for Pilots
Risk management is a decision-making process designed to perceive hazards systematically, assess the degree of risk associated with a hazard, and determine the best course of action.
• Perceives the given set of circumstances for a flight.
• Processes by evaluating the impact of those circumstances on flight safety.
• Performs by implementing the best course of action.
SRM and the 5P Check
• The Plan
• The Plane
• The Pilot,
• The Passengers
• The Programming
Teaching Decision-Making Skills
It is also important for the flight instructor to remember that a good scenario:
• Is not a test.
• Will not have a single correct answer.
• Does not offer an obvious answer.
• Engages all three learning domains.
• Is interactive.
• Should not promote errors.
• Should promote situational awareness and opportunities for decision-making.
• Requires time-pressured decisions.