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Archive for the 'Airspace' Category

Entering Class C and D Airspace

Tuesday, December 7th, 2021

One of the things you cover in a Flight Review is communications with the tower or approach control before entering Class C or D airspace. Unlike Class B where you need to hear the magic words, “Cleared into the Class B”, you only need to “establish communication” with ATC to enter Class C or D […]

KSFO Class B Redesign

Tuesday, April 9th, 2019

The NORCAL TRACON had a webinar where they discussed the KSFO Class B redesign. This post is some of the info that I find useful for transitioning the airspace. There are a lot of ways to get from one point under the Class B shelf to another and to arrive or depart airports under the […]

Introduction to the ATC System & National Airspace System

Tuesday, February 7th, 2017

I found this link when looking for something else and thought it was worth sharing. It gives a good overview of the different roles and responsibilities of the people in the ATC system.

Alert, Caution, and Notice Areas

Monday, December 5th, 2016

In the Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge they discuss the different types of airspace and briefly mention numbered Alert Areas. I don’t remember ever seeing one, so I looked on the charts to find one. I also stumbled across some other areas that the chart makers want pilots to be aware of. Some of these […]

Frequency Change Approved

Saturday, November 26th, 2016

I operate out of Class D airspace and I noticed that whenever I get flight following, I am almost always handed off to Departure Control. When I don”t get flight following, they rarely tell me “Frequency change approved.”. This explains why. 4−3−2. Airports with an Operating Control Tower a. When operating at an airport where […]

Why did ATC vector me?

Tuesday, June 16th, 2015

While I was being vectored, it didn’t make a lot of sense to me, but as I look over my track and the airspace, I can see why ATC did what they did. Just like when you are heading for a mountain that is higher than your current altitude and ATC asks you to say […]


Monday, January 21st, 2013

Good discussion on BeechTalk about ATC separation of aircraft. Separation is always provided between IFR aircraft. Within the class B ATC is always responsible for separation, all aircraft are separated from each other, that’s why you need a clearance to enter if you are VFR. Within the class C IFR aircraft are separated from VFR […]

Width of Federal Airways

Monday, May 21st, 2012

Update: 2017-02-25 As Dave explained in the comments, the width of airways is defined in Order 8260.3C. You can read the order or my snippet of it. As near as I can tell, the FARs no longer specify the width of Federal Airways. But that was not always the case. A Google search finds this […]

Airspace when the tower is closed

Monday, August 22nd, 2011

The note beside this Class Delta airspace says See NOTAMs/Directory for Class D/E (sfc) eff hrs. From the A/FD AIRSPACE: CLASS D svc (1400–0400Z‡) other times CLASS G. Unfortunately, this isn’t as clear as it seems. The entire Class D airspace (to 2,700′ MSL) doesn’t revert to Glass G because as the AIM states: 3.1.3.a […]

Transitioning the LAX Class Bravo Airspace

Sunday, December 6th, 2009

Most of my trips to the LA area are flights under the Class B airspace to Santa Monica or Riverside. I always use flight following, and I’m especially glad for it in the LA basin. They’ll help you navigate around the Class C and D airspace. A few times they’ve cleared me to climb into […]

Airspace—Transponder Requirements

Saturday, January 26th, 2008

Requirements are discussed in the AIM 4-1-20 Transponder Operation. The requirements for transponder operation are covered in FAR § 91.215 for general operation and FAR § 99.13 for ADIZ operation. The Washington DC ADIZ isn’t included in this part, it is handled outside of the FARs as TFRs. There are multiple TFRs that apply to […]

Airspace—Equipment Requirements

Saturday, January 26th, 2008

§ 91.205 Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and equipment requirements. [Link] (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (e) of this section, no person may operate a powered civil aircraft with a standard category U.S. airworthiness certificate in any operation described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this […]

Airspace—Speed Limits

Wednesday, January 9th, 2008

§ 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots (288 m.p.h.). (b) Unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC, no person may operate an aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface within […]

Airspace—Special VFR

Tuesday, January 8th, 2008

§ 91.157 Special VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in appendix D, section 3, of this part, special VFR operations may be conducted under the weather minimums and requirements of this section, instead of those contained in §91.155, below 10,000 feet MSL within the airspace contained by the upward extension of the lateral boundaries […]

Airspace—Weather Minimums

Tuesday, January 8th, 2008

§ 91.155   Basic VFR weather minimums. [Link] (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR when the flight visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less, than that prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace in the following table: […]

Airspace Classification—Summary

Saturday, December 29th, 2007

This is a summary of a fairly detailed post. Controlled Airspace A generic term that covers the different classification of airspace (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace) and defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the […]


Saturday, December 29th, 2007

I just read this post at JetCareers.com and it started me thinking about how to think about airspace.     My student today told me there are "7" types of Class E Airspace:        1) Class E Surface        2) Class E starting at 700'        3) Class E starting at 1200"        4) Class E with […]


Thursday, November 29th, 2007

Update: 2017-02-23 I can’t find anything in the AIM or FAA docs about RITTRs so I suspect that they never happened or were test areas for Terminal Arrival Areas (TAA). From the Piper Flyer article RITTRs Understood. “The NPRM defines a RITTR as a low altitude route based on Area Navigation for GPS-equipped aircraft designed […]

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