The Knowledge Test covers regulations and you will be asked about them in the oral portion of the checkride. Some of the stuff is common knowledge if you have passed a bunch of checkrides, but some of it you won’t remember after the test. This is my cheat sheet for the exams.
Complex airplane means an airplane that has a retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller, including airplanes equipped with an engine control system consisting of a digital computer and associated accessories for controlling the engine and propeller, such as a full authority digital engine control.
Cross-country time includes a point of landing that was at least a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure; sport pilot certificate—more than 25nm; powered parachute privileges or a private pilot certificate with a powered parachute category rating—more than 15nm; rotorcraft 25nm.
Pilot time means that time in which a person—Serves as a required pilot flight crewmember, so this includes safety pilot; Receives training from an authorized instructor or gives training as an authorized instructor in an aircraft, full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device.
Medical certificate—Except not required for glider category rating, a balloon class rating, or glider or balloon privileges;
U.S. driver’s license for sport pilot certificate, weight-shift-control aircraft category rating, or a powered parachute category.
May not use a driver’s license for sport pilot if a medical has been denied.
CFI Required Documents
Flight Instructor Certificate if conducting training
Medical Certificate if a required crewmember (e.g Private Pilot training, IFR training, BFR with pilot whose BFR is expired)
Flight Instructor may—
Give training required to qualify a person for solo flight and solo cross-country flight;
Endorse an applicant for a—
Pilot certificate or rating issued under this part
Flight instructor certificate or rating issued under this part
Ground instructor certificate or rating issued under this part
Although Ground Instructor doesn’t require endorsements unless you fail a knowledge test.
Endorse a pilot logbook to show training given
Endorse a logbook for solo operating privileges
Ground instructor may do all of these except endorse for solo. [However, the student’s authorized instructor must administer the pre-solo test.]
No person may act as pilot in command of a civil aircraft under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR flight unless that person holds the appropriate aircraft category, class, type (if required), and instrument rating on that person’s pilot certificate for any airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift being flown (or an ATP certificate for the category, class, and type).
For a glider, a pilot certificate with a glider category rating and an airplane instrument rating; or
For an airship, a commercial pilot certificate with a lighter-than-air category rating and airship class rating.
Student pilot, Sport pilot, Recreational pilot, Private pilot, Commercial pilot, Airline transport pilot, Flight instructor, Ground instructor
Aircraft category ratings
Airplane, Rotorcraft, Glider, Lighter-than-air, Powered-lift, Powered parachute, Weight-shift-control.
Airplane—Single-engine land, Multiengine land, Single-engine sea, Multiengine sea.
Weight-shift-control aircraft—Weight-shift-control aircraft land, Weight-shift-control aircraft sea.
Powered parachute— Powered parachute land, Powered parachute sea.
Aircraft type ratings— Large aircraft other than lighter-than-air, Turbojet-powered airplanes, Other aircraft type ratings specified by the Administrator through the aircraft type certification procedures.
Instrument ratings apply to private and commercial pilot certificates only. ATP has privileges but not rating.
Instrument—Airplane, Instrument—Helicopter, Instrument—Powered-lift.
Flight Instructor Certificate Ratings
Aircraft category—Airplane, Rotorcraft, Glider, Powered-lift.
Airplane class— Single-engine, Multiengine.
Rotorcraft class— Helicopter, Gyroplane.
Instrument— Instrument—Airplane, Instrument—Helicopter, Instrument—Powered-lift.
Ground Instructor Certificate Ratings
Basic, Advanced, Instrument
Suspension or revocation.
Suspension—may not apply for any certificate, rating, or authorization during the period of suspension.
Revoked—may not apply for any certificate, rating, or authorization for 1 year after the date of revocation.
Drugs and Alcohol
A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to the growing, processing, manufacture, sale, disposition, possession, transportation, or importation of narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances is grounds for denial or suspension.
Provide a written report of each motor vehicle action to the FAA not later than 60 days after the motor vehicle action.
Light Sport Medical
U.S. driver’s license and comply with each restriction and limitation.
Have been found eligible for the issuance of at least a third-class airman medical certificate at the time of his or her most recent application (if the person has applied for a medical certificate and not have had his or her most recently issued medical certificate (if the person has held a medical certificate) suspended or revoked or most recent Authorization for a Special Issuance of a Medical Certificate withdrawn.
Not know or have reason to know of any medical condition that would make that person unable to operate a light-sport aircraft in a safe manner.
At any point after July 14, 2006, have held a medical certificate.
Complete the medical education course during the previous 24 months.
Receive a comprehensive medical examination from a State-licensed physician during the previous 48 months.
Most recently issued medical certificate— May include an authorization for special issuance; may be expired; and cannot have been suspended or revoked.
Acting as PIC
To serve as the pilot in command of an aircraft, a person must hold the appropriate category, class, and type rating (if a class or type rating is required) for the aircraft to be flown; or received training and an endorsement for solo flight in that aircraft from an authorized instructor.
Endorsements require that the pilot has received and logged ground and flight training and received a one-time endorsement in the pilot’s logbook.
Complex airplane, high performance airplane, pressurized aircraft (an aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL), tailwheel airplanes.
Glider: ground-tow procedures, aerotow procedures, self-launch procedures.
Night vision goggle operations
Prerequisites for practical tests.
Knowledge test in past 24 months.
Received and logged 3 hours of training time within 2 calendar months preceding the month of application in preparation for the practical test.
Hold at least a third-class medical certificate (or Basic Med), if a medical certificate is required.
Student Pilots – 16 years of age for other than the operation of a glider or balloon.
Student Pilots – 14 years of age for the operation of a glider or balloon.
Private Pilot — 17
Recreational Pilots – 17
Sport Pilot – 17 years old (or 16 years old if you are applying to operate a glider or balloon).
Commercial Pilot – 18
Flight Instructor – 18
Ground Instructor – 18
ATP – 23 (21 if bachelors degree from 141 school)
Practical tests: Required aircraft and equipment.
Is of the category, class, and type, if applicable, for which the applicant is applying for a certificate or rating and has a standard airworthiness certificate or special airworthiness certificate in the limited, primary, or light-sport category.
An aircraft used for a practical test must have the equipment for each area of operation required for the practical test. No prescribed operating limitations that prohibit its use in any of the areas of operation required for the practical test. At least two pilot stations with adequate visibility for each person to operate the aircraft safely.
An aircraft used for a practical test must have engine power controls and flight controls that are easily reached and operable in a conventional manner by both pilots.
An examiner may waive some of these requirements see §61.45 for details.
Cheating on Knowledge Test
An applicant who the Administrator finds has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section is prohibited, for 1 year after the date of committing that act, from applying for any certificate, rating, or authorization issued under this chapter; and applying for and taking any test under this chapter.
Retesting after failure.
An applicant for a knowledge or practical test who fails that test may reapply for the test only after the applicant has received the necessary training from an authorized instructor who has determined that the applicant is proficient to pass the test and an endorsement from an authorized instructor who gave the applicant the additional training.
An applicant for a flight instructor certificate with an airplane category rating or a glider category rating, who has failed the practical test due to deficiencies in instructional proficiency on stall awareness, spin entry, spins, or spin recovery must receive additional training and bring an aircraft to the retest that is certificated for spins and demonstrate satisfactory instructional proficiency on stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery to an examiner during the retest.
Logging PIC Time—CFI
A certificated flight instructor may log pilot in command flight time for all flight time while serving as the authorized instructor in an operation if the instructor is rated to act as pilot in command of that aircraft. Or gives training as an authorized instructor in an aircraft, full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device.
An authorized instructor may log instrument time when conducting instrument flight instruction in actual instrument flight conditions.
Logging training time
A person may log training time when that person receives training from an authorized instructor in an aircraft, full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device.
Operations that require a medical certificate
No person who holds a medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter may act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, while that person knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation or is taking medication or receiving other treatment for a medical condition that results in the person being unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation.
Operations that do not require a medical certificate.
A person shall not act as pilot in command, or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, while that person knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to operate the aircraft in a safe manner.
Required every 24 months unless passed a pilot proficiency check or practical test for a pilot certificate, rating, or operating privilege. Or passed a practical test conducted by an examiner for the issuance of a flight instructor certificate, an additional rating on a flight instructor certificate, renewal of a flight instructor certificate, or reinstatement of a flight instructor certificate (and a few other cases).
A flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training. The review must include: a review of the current general operating and flight rules of part 91 of this chapter; and a review of those maneuvers and procedures that, at the discretion of the person giving the review, are necessary for the pilot to demonstrate the safe exercise of the privileges of the pilot certificate.
Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.
No person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and— (i) The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and (ii) The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type (if a type rating is required), and, if the aircraft to be flown is an airplane with a tailwheel, the takeoffs and landings must have been made to a full stop in an airplane with a tailwheel.
Night currency is the same except that the landings must be to a full stop.
Within the 6 calendar months preceding the month of the flight, that person performed and logged at least the following tasks and iterations in an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter, or airship, as appropriate, for the instrument rating privileges to be maintained in actual weather conditions, or under simulated conditions using a view-limiting device that involves having performed the following— (i) Six instrument approaches. (ii) Holding procedures and tasks. (iii) Intercepting and tracking courses through the use of navigational electronic systems.
A person may use time in a full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device for satisfying instrument recency experience requirements provided a logbook or training record is maintained to specify the training device, time, and the content.
A person who has failed to meet the instrument experience requirements of this section for more than six calendar months may reestablish instrument currency only by completing an instrument proficiency check.
Change of address
The holder of a pilot, flight instructor, or ground instructor certificate who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified in writing the FAA.
A pilot is only required to log time required to establish recent flight experience and to qualify for a certificate, rating, or endorsement.