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CFI and AGI Tests: Miscellaneous Things I Can’t Remember

There are a bunch of questions where the answer that the test-prep books say is the correct answer, is wrong. There are also a bunch where the question probably makes sense in context, but qualifying words are omitted from the question. There are also lots of them where there are two or more correct answers and you need to guess which one the FAA wants. And then there are a few that I just can’t remember the answer to. This is my list. I’d recommend that you prepare your own.

Lots of weather stuff I can’t remember is covered in this post.

In general, at high angles of attack the center of pressure moves forward, while at low angles of attack, the CP moves aft. The relationship between CP and CG affects both aerodynamic balance and controllability.

Thrust is the force that imparts a change in the velocity of a mass. It may be measured in pounds, but it has no element of time or rate. The term “thrust required” is generally associated with jet engines. A forward force which propels the airplane through the air. Power implies work rate or units of work per unit of time, and as such, it is a function of the speed at which the force is developed. The term “power required” is generally associated with reciprocating engines.

Stalling speed: An aircraft’s stalling speed increases in proportion to the square root of the load factor.

The “design maneuvering speed” (VA), which is the speed below which you can move a single flight control, one time, to its full deflection, for one axis of airplane rotation only (pitch, roll or yaw), in smooth air, without risk of damage to the airplane.

When rolling out of a steep-banked turn, what causes the lowered aileron to create more drag than when rolling into the turn. The wing’s angle of attack is greater as the rollout is started.

Adverse Yaw Since the downward deflected aileron produces more lift as evidenced by the wing raising, it also produces more drag. This added drag causes the wing to slow down slightly. This results in the aircraft yawing toward the wing which had experienced an increase in lift (and drag). From the pilot’s perspective, the yaw is opposite the direction of the bank.

Dutch Roll: If the aircraft has a right wing pushed down, the positive sideslip angle corrects the wing laterally before the nose is realigned with the relative wind. As the wing corrects the position, a lateral directional oscillation can occur resulting in the nose of the aircraft making a figure eight on the horizon as a result of two oscillations (roll and yaw), which, although of about the same magnitude, are out of phase with each other.

Spiral instability. A condition that exists when the static directional stability of the airplane is very strong as compared to the effect of its dihedral in maintaining lateral equilibrium.

The propeller acts as a gyroscope. Precession is the resultant action, or deflection, of a spinning rotor when a deflecting force is applied to the rotor’s rim. Thus, as the airplane yaws arond its vertical axis, it results in a pitching moment about its lateral axis.

Effect of Weight on Flight Performance
The takeoff/climb and landing performance of an aircraft are determined on the basis of its maximum allowable takeoff and landing weights. A heavier gross weight results in a longer takeoff run, higher takeoff speed, and shallower climb. On landing, a faster touchdown speed and longer landing roll.

The aircraft stalls at a higher speed with a forward CG location.

The aircraft cruises faster with an aft CG location because of reduced drag. The drag is reduced because a smaller AOA and less downward deflection of the stabilizer are required to support the aircraft and overcome the nose-down pitching tendency. The aircraft becomes less stable as the CG is moved rearward.

The left engine on most light twins is the critical engine. This is due to multiengine airplanes being subject to P-factor, as are single-engine airplanes. The descending propeller blade of each engine will produce greater thrust than the ascending blade when the airplane is operated under power and at positive angles of attack. The descending propeller blade of the right engine is also a greater distance from the center of gravity, and therefore has a longer moment arm than the descending propeller blade of the left engine.

A common mistake students often make when performing turns is attempting to turn using only instrument references.

When landing with slight ballooning hold a constant angle of attack.

A demarcation bar delineates a runway with a displaced threshold from a blast pad, stopway, or taxiway that precedes the runway.

Separation, measured at the time the preceding aircraft is over the landing threshold, is provided to small aircraft: (a) Small landing behind heavy − 6 miles. (b) Small landing behind large, non−B757 − 4 miles.

Appropriate time or distance intervals are provided to departing aircraft when the departure will be from the same threshold… (a) Three minutes or the appropriate radar separation when takeoff will be behind a super aircraft; (b) Two minutes or the appropriate radar separation when takeoff will be behind a heavy aircraft.


The ceiling/sky condition, visibility, and obstructions to vision may be omitted from the ATIS broadcast if the ceiling is above 5,000 feet and the visibility is more than 5 miles.

A warm front describes a condition where warm air overrides cooler air. When relatively warm rain or drizzle falls through the cool air, evaporation from the precipitation saturates the cool air and produces fog. Q: Fog associated with a warm front is a result of saturation due to evaporation of precipitation. Q: Which in-flight hazard is mot commonly associated with warm fronts: Precipitation-induced fog.

Temperature and dew point converge at 4.4°F (2.5°C).

A moist warm air mass is being cooled from below is characterized by: smooth air.
A moist cold air mass is being warmed from below is characterized by: showers and thunderstorms.
Cool air moving over a warm surface is characterized by instability and showers.

If a moist air mass moves over a warmer surface, lifting action is induced, which results in instability, turbulence, and cumulus clouds. These are indications of an unstable air mass.

Cool air moving over a warm surface becomes warmed from below and is therefore an unstable air mass characterized by showery precipitation, good visibility, turbulent air, and cumuliform clouds.

Stable lapse rate, stratiform clouds, fog, smooth air, and poor visibility are characteristics of a moist air mass that is warmer than the surface over which it passes.

A cold front occlusion occurs when the air behind the cold front is colder than the air in advance of the warm front. This lifts the warm air aloft.

Frontal waves and cyclones (areas of low pressure) usually form on slow-moving cold fronts of stationary fronts.

Microbursts may have a maximum downdraft of 6,000 fpm, last 15 minutes from the time the burst strikes the ground until dissipation, and have a maximum intensity of 2 to 4 minutes.

Fog should be reported on a METAR when visibility is below 5/8 statute miles and mist should be reported when visibility is greater than 5/8 SM and less than 7 statute miles.

In a convective outlook chart, slight risk is 2-5%, moderate risk is 6-10%, high risk is 10-50%.
Slight risk means that risk of severe thunderstorms is indicated, but they will be small in numbers and/or low coverage of the affected area.


An applicant requires 3 hours of training in the previous 2 calendar months in preparation for a practical test. If all parts aren’t completed, the remaining must be competed in 60 days.

Solo Cross Country
For each cross-country flight, the authorized instructor who reviews the cross-country planning must make an endorsement in the person’s logbook after reviewing that person’s cross-country planning, as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. The endorsement must—
(i) Specify the make and model of aircraft to be flown;
(ii) State that the student’s preflight planning and preparation is correct and that the student is prepared to make the flight safely under the known conditions; and
(iii) State that any limitations required by the student’s authorized instructor are met.

A flight instructor must have 5 hours PIC time in the make and model of multiengine airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift.

Instruction by an ATP is limited to 36 hours in any 7-day period.
In any 24-consecutive-hour period, a flight instructor may not conduct more than 8 hours of flight training.

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